Les kachinas sont avant tout les "esprits"
(tres supranaturels) qui constituent le panthon des indiens Hopi. Ils sont
censs tre hbergs dans les montagnes (en particulier les San Francisco Peaks au
dessus de Flagstaff) et viennent selon le saisons hanter les villages Hopi. Des
crmonies sacres o les adultes revtent les attributs des kachinas ont lieu suivant
les saisons. J'ai assist en t 1979 un "pardon" Oraibi o
dansaient les masques ( cette priode, seuls les clowns kachinas taient de
crmonie). A cette fte, interdite de photos, assistaient les habitants du village et
des villages voisins et quelques dizaines de touristes.
Les poupes kachinas sont des reprsentations des esprits faites pour l'ducation religieuse des enfants. On voit encore dans des maisons traditionnelles (par exemple Walpi) des poupes suspendues au mur. Les modles authentiques sont moins dlicatement sculpts que les figurines ci-dessous qui sont en fait des sculptures reproduisant les masques des crmonies.
Les kachinas sont rpandues dans les nations Hopi et Zuni, tandis que, dans les Indiens Pueblos christianiss du Nouveau Mexique, ces traditions ont disparu. Il existe aussi des kachinas Navajo, mais il s'agit l plus d'une extension de l'artisanat plus que de traditions authentiques.
Ces poupes Hopi kachinas ont t achetes en
Arizona entre 1969 et 1985. Elles ont t fabriques cette poque en vue d'une
commercialisation par des artisans Hopi. Elles ont t fabriques la main selon la
tradition mais ne se retrouvent jamais l'identique. Mes meilleures kachinas ont t
fabriques par Bernard Talas fabriquant exclusif pour la "Old Territorial Shop"
de Scottsdale AZ. D'autres ont t achetes aux boutiques du Muse du
Northern Arizona Flagstaff et du Heard Museum Phoenix. Ce dernier hberge la
collection des kachinas anciennes de l'ancien snateur Barry Goldwater plus connu en
France par son extrmisme politique que par son respect des cultures indiennes.
Toutes mes kachinas ont t sculptes par des Indiens de l'Arizona dans du bois tendre de peuplier (cottonwood) peint et sur lequel sont colls des ornements en fourrures, plumes et objets de cuir et de bois. Les postures traditionnelles sont statiques, les mouvements de danse ont t introduits dans les annes 1970 pour les touristes, de mme que les kachinas en bois massif (sans plumes et fourrures).
La dimension moyenne de ces kachinas est de 25 cm (10 pouces)
|Antelope kachina (B Talas)||Dances to increase the number of the tribe. Brings
Usually accompanied by the Wolf Kachina. He makes the rains come and the graas grow. Appears in Mixed Dances.
|Antelope kachina||Dances to increase the number of the tribe. Brings rain|
|Eototo kachina chief (B Talas)|
|Woman ogre kachina (B Talas)||Soyok' Wuhti (Ogre Woman) who appears during or shortly after the bean dance and tells boys to hunt mice for her and girls to grind corn for her, or she will eat them; She wears carved and painted black dress with wedding sash (fringe is of cotton string), white leggings, reddish orange moccasins, and black paper-backed cloth cape; Black case mask has red tab ears (small gray feather through each one), large round yellow eyes, and rectangular mouth with bared teeth, and black beard with white bands; Dark brown human hair covers top and back of mask and hangs down over face; She carries crooked stick in left hand and wooden knife in right hand; Trace of additional feathers on top of mask.|
|Bear kachina (CG)||Hon (Bear Kachina); Figure's white body has red
circle on chest and back and on each arm and leg; He wears brown moccasins with real
leather cuffs, flesh-colored kilt with dance sash, black breechclout, fox skin tail on
each black wool garter and wristlet, real leather armbands and bandoliers, and painted
bracelets; White mask with snout and red tab ears, has white fur ruff; White wool and
several black and yellow feathers are attached to top of mask; Figure carries rattle in
right hand and bow in left hand; Left foot only is glued to cottonwood base
White Bear Katsina is Qotsa'honaw Katsina representing leadership.
Most of the Hopi Village leadership comes from the Bear clan, who are responsible for much
of the Hopi Religious functions. White Bear appears during the Katsina night dances in
March and also during the day Katsina dances. He can be part of a group of Bear Katsinam
or can appear singly with the Mixed Katsinam. They are very powerful spirit beings.
|Brown Bear kachina (B Talas)|
|Owl kachina||Mongwu (Great Horned Owl Kachina), a warrior who
disciplines the clowns if their behavior becomes too outrageous; His body is painted a
flesh tone with large white ovals on his arms, legs, chest, and back; He wears a black
felt breechclout, carved and painted orange moccasins with brown cuffs, carved and painted
white buckskin cape, green yarn wristlet on right wrist, leather and shell bracelet on
left wrist, and turquoise colored plastic tab necklace ; His case mask is painted mottled
gray with flaring side wings, circular yellow eyes, down-turned yellow beak, and yellow
neck ruff; He carries green plastic fern in right hand and white bow in left hand
The Great Horned Owl [Mongwa] is best noted for his incessant war on the clowns. As the clowns follow their usual pattern of un-Hopi-like behaviour, a single silent figure will drift into one corner of the plaza and watch these uncouth fellows."
"When the clowns next appear, growing ever more boisterous in their actions, the Owl again appears and hoots solemnly. With each appearance he gets closer until he ends up talking with the clown chief who promptly blames all misbehaviour on the other clowns."
"But at the last performance, the Owl is joined by other Warrior Kachinas. They leap upon the clowns, douse them with water, beat them vigorously with willow switches or yucca blades, and leave them howling with remorse in a pile in the middle of the plaza."
-Another characteristic of the Owl is that of a messenger. He comes to warn the village and to call them to repentance. Perhaps this is why he carries on that way with the clowns - as a symbol. He comes to warn them of the bad things that can happen if they are not living right.
This piece is a beautiful example of the Owl as a disciplinarian who has come to restore order to the village plaza by chasing the foolhardy mudheads and clowns. His yucca whips are raised and ready.
|Badger (B. Talas)||Honan (Badger) Kachina, who appears during mixed
dances on 3rd Mesa or the Water Serpent Ceremony on 1st Mesa; Torso and upper arms are
painted black except for 2 white stripes down his back and single white stripe down his
chest; Forearms and legs are painted light gray; He wears carved and painted white kilt,
dance sash , concho belt, fox tail, red moccasins, and green wool yarn wristlets; Brown
case mask with white stripe running down center from front to back has carved and painted
green neck ruff, black and white beak-like mouth, and feather bundles in place of ears;
Oval eyes are black and white; Yellow and black badger print is painted on each cheek;
Remnants of rattles (?) remain in both hands.
The Badger is the most important of the animals, acting as a medical advisor and councellor...they are the greatest doctors and curers. Especially since they have great knowledge of plants and herbs
|Eagle Kachina (B. Talas)||Kwahu (Eagle Kachina); Figure's torso and upper arms
are painted black; Shoulders, forearms, and lower legs and feet are painted muddy yellow;
He wears carved and painted kilt and dance sash with sash belt (painted cardboard glued
over dance sash) anklets (painted cardboard) and leg rattles (commercial rattles tied to
leather thongs), and shite shell and (plastic) turquoise bead necklace, and painted plaque
on back; Carved eagle feather wings are attached to arms and backed with red felt; White
case mask is painted pale green on front with yellow beak , red tab ears with beaded
earrings, green wool neck ruff, and crown of yucca strips and feathers
Kwahu (Eagle Kachina); Figure's body is painted dull yellow and he wears carved and painted low brown moccasins, embroidered kilt and sash, and full head mask that is turquoise with red tab ears and yellow eagle beak; Mask is surmounted by bundle of real feathers and trimmed at neck with green (plastic) ruff; Both arms are covered with actual red flicker feathers
|Mud-head clown kachina (O.Y.)|
|Koyemsi Clown Kachina||Koyemsi (Mudhead Kachina), a multi-faceted clown who
may appear as part of a group or individually at numerous dances; Figure's body is
completely painted brown with large black circle with white dots on his belly; He wears a
black breechclout, black kerchief, black leggings, and orange moccasins, and black
bracelets or armbands; His mask is also brown with slighly bulging eyes and mouth and a
knob on either side as well as on forehead and on back; Arms and legs are attached to body
with leather thong.
The Mudhead Kachina (Koyemsi) is probably the most well-known of all the Hopi Kachinas. Mudheads appear in almost every Hopi ceremony as clowns, announcers, drummers and many other roles. They always accompany other Kachinas and play games with the audience to the accompaniment of music. Their rewards are usually prizes of food or clothing
|Sun Tawa Kachina (B. Talas)||Tawa Kachina (Sun kachina) who appears in the mixed dance; His upper torso is painted red, with his right shoulder, left forearm, and right leg painted pale blue and his left shoulder, right forearm, and left leg painted yellow; He wears carved and painted white kilt, dance sash, brown moccasins, and red bandolier; His sack mask is white and the sun-shaped face is painted pale blue on lower half with black rectangular eyes and triangular mouth; Upper half of face is half orange and half yellow; Mask is encircled by row of trimmed wild turkey feathers (instead of the usual white eagle feathers) and back of mask is covered with gray feathers; Neck ruff is made of brown rabbit fur.|
|Chief Kachina (M.L.)|
|Rattle kachina (Esther Jackson)|
|Yo-we kachina (V.A.C.)||In the late 1600's the Hopis rebelled against the
Spanish priests at the same time as the Pueblos along the Rio Grande, but in contrast to
the eastern group the Hopis were never re-conquered. Yo-we is thought to be the
Kachina that killed the priest at Oraibi during the revolt. He grabbed for the priest's
girl friend but succeeded only in tearing off one Earring's, which is why this Kachina
always appears with a single earring
Yo-we est un exemplaire des chefs kachinas. Yo-we est suppos avoir dcapit un prtre franciscain lors de la rbellion des Hopi contre les Espagnols mexicains la fin des annes 1980. Cette kachina est souvent reprsent avec une tte la ceinture. Ce n'est pas le cas ici.
|Corn Kachina (B. Talas)|
|Soyoko is an ogre wearing a butcher knife and a cane. It is found on third Mesa.|
|Hu Kachina is a whipper kachina, having a black head and body, wearing a fox skin ruff; its hands handle yucca leaf whips.|